An exhibit of the collection, which spans Thompson's life from photos of his childhood to television campaign advertisements and speeches, opens Nov. 2 at UGA's Russell Library.
Thompson was the first lieutenant governor of Georgia and briefly served as governor in 1947 when Eugene Talmage died after being elected but before taking office.
Thompson was appointed governor by the state Supreme Court after filing a petition saying he had the rightful claim to the office because he was lieutenant governor.
His appointment ousted Talmage's son, Herman, who was tapped to replace his father by the General Assembly. Thompson then went on to lose to Herman Talmage in a special election for the seat.