Vickers posted a lap of 93.678 mph in a Toyota to win his fourth pole of the season. He also won the pole last weekend at Michigan, where he finished ninth.
He edged defending race winner Kyle Busch, who ran a lap at 93.415 mph to qualify second.
Marcos Ambrose qualified third to give Toyotas the top three qualifying spots.
Scott Speed was among the four drivers who failed to qualify when he ran off course in Turn 10. It spoiled a great lap for the former Formula One driver, who is Vickers' teammate at Red Bull Racing.