Nicholas Tennyson, of the 1700 block of Hicks Street, was arrested about 2 a.m., police said.
He is charged with aggravated assault, criminal attempt (armed robbery), possession of a firearm by a convicted felon and possession of a firearm during the commission of a crime, according to jail records.
A Channel 6 viewer called the Sheriffs Office after seeing the video on the 11 p.m. newscast, police said.
On Tuesday, investigators said Lisa Escalante, 32, was leaving the Select Specialty Hospital employee parking lot on Wrights Avenue about 6 a.m. when a man on a bicycle tried to grab her purse.
She fought back, and the man pulled out a revolver and shot her in the shoulder.
Video of the gunman, which shows him walking into CVS Pharmacy on Walton Way shortly before the shooting, was released Tuesday afternoon.
Ms. Escalante is still recovering at a University Hospital, Richmond County Sheriffs Lt. Scott Peebles said in an e-mail this morning.
The bullet traveled through her arm, entered her chest cavity and rested within a centimeter of her heart. She is expected to make a full recovery.
No other arrests are expected, and Mr. Tennyson is being held without bond at the Richmond County Jail.