WASHINGTON - A presidential commission looking into how to make income taxes fairer and simpler heard pitches Wednesday from experts with ideas about revamping or replacing the current system.
The commission examined plans to base taxes on spending rather than income, which could mean a national sales tax or a European-style value-added tax.
As for transforming the income tax, the commission heard proposals for comprehensive change and minor tinkering.
"Not one person who we encountered as we traveled the country told us that our current tax system was good for America and that we should leave it alone," said the commission's chairman, former GOP. Sen. Connie Mack of Florida.
After hearing complaints about tax laws, the President's Advisory Panel on Federal Tax Reform used this meeting to consider ways to replace the system.
Michael Graetz, a Yale Law School professor, offered an outline of how to meld income taxes with a value-added tax. That tax, used widely in Europe, imposes a levy on the increased value of a product at each stage of production.
Under his plan, consumers would see a 13 percent to 14 percent value-added tax appear on their purchases.
Individuals earning less than $50,000 and families making under $100,000 no longer would pay income taxes under such a plan. Those still paying income taxes would get a simplified system and a top tax rate of 25 percent.
"I am very skeptical that you can fix the income tax," Graetz said.
Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan has told the commission that he supports some combination of income and consumption taxes as a catalyst for economic growth. Others have warned about the dangers of a poorly designed hybrid.
A consumption tax could take the form of a national retail sales tax, a potential replacement for income, estate and payroll taxes. Americans for Fair Taxation offered a plan setting a 23 percent sales tax on purchases, with exemptions for the poor.
An alternate plan, offered by David Burton of the Free Enterprise Fund, would reduce the rate to 8.4 percent for individuals by also levying the tax on businesses.
In the event the current income tax was retained, experts made the case for ways to promote savings and to simplify credits and deductions.
That could mean letting businesses immediately expense their investments and expanding individuals' ability to save money tax free.
"Why go searching for some new, magic elixir with unknown results?" said Ernest Christian, director of the Center for Strategic Tax Reform. He said the value-added tax was an "exotic import" at odds with the U.S. tax experience.
Others endorsed keeping the incentives for homeownership and charitable giving that President Bush wants preserved, while reducing the many other deductions and credits now available.
The commission, which expects to make final recommendations this summer, discussed options for a flat tax that eliminates deductions and credits, reduces income tax rates and erases taxes on investment income.
"There's not a human being alive today who knows what's in the code," said Steve Forbes, a one-time presidential contender who favors the flat tax.
Commission members asked about how the country could shift to such a tax, wanting to make sure the government got the revenue it needed during that transition.
Former Sen. John Breaux, D-La., the commission's vice chairman, asked whether people could accept a system that taxes wages but not investment income. Others raised questions about eliminating the current system's progressive tax rates.
Former Rep. Dick Armey, R-Texas, said it is a "big job" to convince voters that the poor and wealthy could benefit from a flat tax.
"What's fair is to treat everybody exactly the same as everybody else," he said.
On the Net:
President's Advisory Panel on Federal Tax Reform: www.taxreformpanel.gov