OSLO, Norway - Edvard Munch's masterpiece, "The Scream," has become a world icon of human anxiety, appearing on everything from popular T-shirts to blowup dolls, and causing endless debate among art experts.
But what exactly is the surreal figure doing in the painting, with hands pressed to its head and open mouth: Screaming, or hearing a scream?
While the general public seems certain, connoisseurs disagree. Interest has been stimulated in the Norwegian master's works with the recent theft of three more Munchs in Norway, seven months after "The Scream" and another masterpiece, "Madonna," were stolen from an Oslo museum.
The latest works, a water color and two prints, were recovered by police Monday, less than a day after they were stolen, and five young suspects are being held in jail pending indictment and trial.
A version of "The Scream," as well as "Madonna," were taken by gunmen from the Munch Museum in Oslo in August and have yet to be recovered.
There are four versions of "The Scream," one of the world's most recognized painted images, showing an anguished figure against a surrealistic reddish sky, that itself can cause despair in viewers.
The stolen version of "The Scream" was painted in 1893 as part of Munch's "Frieze of Life" series in which sickness, death, anxiety and love are central themes.
The painter, who died in 1944 at age 81, could not have envisioned the popularity of the haunted figure that has appeared on clothes, inflatable figures and even dinner plates. Even opponents to the re-election of U.S. President George W. Bush in the 2004 presidential campaign used it on T-shirts, with the words "Bush Again?"
Most believe the icon of anxiety is screaming.
Or is it? It could just as well be listening to a scream.
In his own writings about the painting, Munch said he was walking with friends when the sky turned blood red: "I stood there trembling with anxiety - and I sensed an infinite scream passing through nature."
Morten Zondag, a Munch expert with Blomqvist art house and auctioneers in Oslo, said that seems to make sense.
"If you look at the texts, you see it is a scream from nature," he told the Associated Press. "I would think it portrays a scream from nature, but that this person or thing is a personification of that scream."
Gunnar Soerensen, director of the Munch Museum in Oslo, was less certain.
"It could be a scream in nature or a person screaming," he said. "It is a question of interpretation."
Soerensen said experts know the place in Oslo that provided the backdrop for the painting, and there was certainly screaming there at the time: the bellows from a nearby slaughterhouse or the cries of patients at a psychiatric asylum, or both.
"The point is that he managed to paint a sound," Soerensen said in a telephone interview. "It is about a modern person's anxiety."
Munch worked in Germany as well as his native Norway, and his emotionally charged style was of great importance in the birth of the 20th-century expressionist movement.
Hans-Martin Frydenberg Flaaten, whose University of Oslo thesis was on "The Scream," said: "Everyone sees it in their own way, and that causes debate. I think that was part of the point."
Flaaten said the figure's hands do appear to be covering its ears, shielding them from a scream. However, it could also be clutching its head, a classic gesture of a scream.
Like Zondag, Flaaten said he sees it mostly as a scream in nature, with the figure personifying the scream. He believes the important thing is that Munch was trying to paint a sound, an idea that fascinated his circle of artists and writers, who also tried to find ways to hear colors.
The artist could have been inspired by many sights and sounds, which he combined into one painting, Soerensen said.
"It has become an icon. It is shockingly easy to understand," he said. "Is he screaming, or is he hearing a scream? Does it matter?"
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