1972: A U.S. District Court judge refused to issue a stay delaying the start of the third phase of a plan to integrate Richmond County's elementary schools.
1984: Violence erupted in Waynesboro, Ga., within an hour after a police curfew was imposed, resulting in four fires and 14 arrests. The curfew was intended to curb race rioting that began the previous day as rumors spread that a black suspect in police custody had died of beating injuries; the man actually died of heat exhaustion.
NATION / WORLD:
1227 The Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan died.
1587 Virginia Dare became the first child of English parents to be born on American soil, on what is now Roanoke Island, N.C.
1846 U.S. forces led by Gen. Stephen W. Kearney captured Santa Fe, N.M.
1894 Congress established the Bureau of Immigration.
1914 President Wilson issued his Proclamation of Neutrality, aimed at keeping the United States out of World War I.
1920 Tennessee became the 36th state to ratify the 19th Amendment to the Constitution, which guaranteed the right of all American women to vote.
1958 The novel Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov was published.
1963 James Meredith became the first black to graduate from the University of Mississippi.
1983 Hurricane Alicia slammed into the Texas coast, leaving 22 dead and causing more than $1 billion in damage.
1989: The Labor Department reported that the Consumer Price Index rose only 0.2 percent in July 1989, easing fears of a recession.
1989 In Colombia, leading presidential hopeful Luis Carlos Galan was assassinated outside Bogota; the Medellin drug cartel was strongly suspected.
1991 Soviet hard-liners launched a coup aimed at toppling President Mikhail S. Gorbachev, who was vacationing in the Crimea. (The coup collapsed three days later.)
1994: Florida Gov. Lawton Chiles declared an immigration emergency and demanded federal help to cope with the largest surge of Cuban refugees since the 1980 Mariel boat-lift.
1997 Beth Ann Hogan became the first coed in Virginia Military Institute's 158-year history.