1997: The Paul S. Simon Discovery Theater opened at the National Science Center's Fort Discovery at Riverwalk Augusta.
1790: The Columbia returned to Boston Harbor after a three-year voyage, becoming the first ship to carry the American flag around the world.
1842: The United States and Canada resolved a border dispute by signing the Webster-Ashburton Treaty.
1848: The Free-Soil Party nominated Martin Van Buren for president at its convention in Buffalo, N.Y.
1854: Henry David Thoreau published Walden, which described his experiences while living near Walden Pond in Massachusetts.
1902: Edward VII was crowned king of England following the death of his mother, Queen Victoria.
1936: Jesse Owens won his fourth gold medal at the Berlin Olympics as the United States took first place in the 400-meter relay.
1945: Three days after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, Japan, the United States exploded a nuclear device over Nagasaki, killing an estimated 74,000 people.
1965: Singapore proclaimed its independence from the Malaysian Federation.
1969: Actress Sharon Tate and four other people were found murdered in her Los Angeles home; cult leader Charles Manson and a group of his disciples were later convicted of the crime.
1988 President Reagan nominated Lauro Cavazos as secretary of education, the first Hispanic to serve in the Cabinet.
1989: Toshiki Kaifu was elected prime minister of Japan, succeeding Sousuke Uno.
1989: In Mexico, a train fell into the San Rafael River after a bridge collapsed, killing 112 people.
1994: A divided Senate opened formal debate on legislation to provide health insurance for millions of Americans without it.
1995: Jerry Garcia, lead singer of the Grateful Dead, died in San Francisco at age 53.
1998: Americans, Kenyans and Tanzanians held church and memorial services to mourn those killed in bombing attacks on two U.S. embassies.
1998: In China, engineers dynamited levees along the Yangtze River to ease the worst floods in 44 years.