1845: Musgrove & Co. broke the first ground for the Augusta Canal.
1642: The Canadian city of Montreal was founded.
1804: The French Senate proclaimed Napoleon Bonaparte emperor.
1896: the Supreme Court endorsed the concept of "separate but equal" racial segregation with its "Plessy v. Ferguson" decision, a ruling that was overturned 58 years later in the case of "Brown v. Board of Education."
1897: A public reading of Bram Stoker's new novel, Dracula, or, The Un-dead, was staged in London.
1899: The First Hague Peace Conference opened in the Netherlands.
1926: Evangelist Aimee Semple McPherson vanished while visiting a beach in Venice, Calif.; she reappeared a month later, claiming to have been kidnapped.
1933: The Tennessee Valley Authority was created.
1951: The United Nations moved out of its temporary headquarters in Lake Success, N.Y., for its permanent home in Manhattan.
1953: Jacqueline Cochran became the first woman to break the sound barrier as she piloted a North American F-86 Canadair over Rogers Dry Lake, Calif.
1969: Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Thomas P. Stafford and John W. Young blasted off aboard Apollo X.
1980: The Mount St. Helens volcano in Washington state exploded, leaving 57 people dead or missing.
1989: Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev concluded his historic visit to China, which officially marked the end of a 30-year Sino-Soviet rift.
1994: Israel's three decades of occupation in the Gaza Strip ended as Israeli troops completed their withdrawal and Palestinian authorities took over.
1998: The government filed an antitrust case against Microsoft Corp.
1998: The Supreme Court, in a sweeping endorsement of broadcasters' free-speech rights and journalistic discretion, ruled that even public stations owned and run by states need not invite marginal candidates to political debates they sponsor.