Pittsburgh had won four in a row and defeated New York eight times in the last nine meetings between the two teams, but Ryan McDonagh and Derek Stepan scored 1:05 apart late in the first period to put the Rangers ahead. Boyle and Callahan then connected within a 2:28 span of the second to send New York to its fourth win in five games.
Derick Brassard made it 5-1 at 9:57 of the third, and Brad Richards had two assists for New York, which rebounded from a 2-1 loss to Anaheim on Monday and completed a 3-1 homestand.
Henrik Lundqvist made 28 saves.
Kris Letang’s power-play goal pulled the Penguins to 3-1 with 5:26 left in the second, but Callahan’s fourth of the season – in his second game back in the lineup – restored the Rangers’ three-goal lead just 1:04 later.
Marc-Andre Fleury, who sat out Pittsburgh’s 3-0 win at Columbus on Saturday, stopped 20 shots.
The Rangers (7-8) scored more than three goals for the second time this season, but reached five for the second time in three games. Pittsburgh (11-5) fell to 4-3 on the road and allowed more than two goals for only the sixth time.
For the opening 18 minutes of the game, the Penguins had everything going their way. But despite controlling the puck and having multiple scoring chances, Pittsburgh remained locked in a scoreless tie.
Then, in just more than a minute, the Rangers skated off with a stunning 2-0 lead.
Boyle won a puck battle behind the Pittsburgh net and backhanded a pass that McDonagh gathered before snapping off a shot that beat Fleury with 1:52 left in the first for his third goal.
About four minutes later, Craig Adams rang a shot off the right post behind Lundqvist.