The Phoenix (4-1) led by as many as 16 points in the second half, but South Carolina (3-1) cut the lead to five, 57-52, with 5:46 to play. From there, Elon capitalized on several Gamecocks turnovers and missed shots to put the game away.
The Phoenix also defeated South Carolina last season, 58-53 at Elon.
Elon used a 13-0 run over a span of 8:01 to lead 28-15 with 2:23 to play in the first half, but South Carolina closed the half on an 8-3 run, thanks to two 3-pointers from Damien Leonard.
For South Carolina, forward Michael Carrera missed his third consecutive game since suffering a concussion in practice.
Lakeem Jackson led the Gamecocks in scoring with 14 points.