Today in History - April 1

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Andrew W. Mellon, former treasury secretary, is shown on the witness stand as he testified at his income tax hearing in Pittsburgh, Pa., on April 1, 1935. Mellon is facing his chief defense council, Frank J. Hogan, under direct examination while Judges Charles M. Trammell, Ernest H. Van Fossan and Bolan B. Turner, left to right, listen. The ex-treasury head admitted selling stock in 1931 to offset income tax. (AP Photo)

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A U.S. military policeman carries an injured dog from the Victoria Hotel, an officers' billet in Saigon, South Vietnam, after it was attacked, April 1, 1966. Viet Cong terrorists attacked with machine guns, grenades and a truck full of explosives. Three Americans died in an exchange of gunfire with the terrorists during and after the raid. (AP Photo/John Nance)

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A group of demonstrators rounds the corner of Syringa Avenue and Berea Road in Durban during violent demonstrations, April 1, 1960. (AP Photo)

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Benjamin Garber, an ex-GI and now a taxi driver and fruit vendor, uses his cab as a fruit stand in Philadelphia, Pa., April 1, 1947. As members of the GI Taxicab Association, ruled off the streets by a State Supreme Court decree, said they intend to peddle fruit from their cabs to raise money to continue their fight for the right to operate. (AP Photo/Preston Stroup)

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Tony Garcci of Richmond, Va., determined to plant a Victory Garden despite the shortages of farmhands and horsepower, works the plow being pulled by his pickup truck, driven by Joe Garcci, April 1, 1943. The job was completed in a few hours' time. (AP Photo)

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President Richard Nixon talks with veteran movie director John Ford just after presenting him with the nation's highest civilian medal, the Medal of Freedom, in Beverly Hills, Calif., April 1,1973. The award was made at an American Film Institute dinner. Ford, 78 and ailing, is regarded by many as America's greatest filmmaker. (AP Photo/Charles Tasnadi)

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Gail Sheehy, author of "Passages", at podium, right, reads during the "First Banned Books Read Out" in New York, April 1, 1982. The rally protested censorship by school and public libraries of certain books under pressure from right wing religious groups. Woman next to Sheehy is an unidentified sign language interpreter. (AP Photo/Carlos Rene Perez)

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A officer supervises the crowd at a Red Cross food distribution centre in Wao, southern Sudan on April 1, 1989. (AP Photo/Paola Crociani)

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Italian movie star Sophia Loren, tours the Emerald Buddha temple in Bangkok, Friday, April 1, 1983 during a three-day visited here to promoting a range of perfumes called “Sophia” put out by cosmetics manufacturer Coty. (AP Photo/Mangkorn)

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On the set of “Young Frankenstein” in Los Angeles on April 1, 1974, the teenage directors of “Life Times Nine” watched Mel Brooks shoot a scene in Dr. Frankenstein’s dungeon and Peter Boyle in green-monster makeup put a friendly strangle-hold on Marilyn Becker, 17. (AP Photo)

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This is a 1973 photo of a jaguar resting on rocks. Federal agents have until April 1 to decide whether to list jaguars as an endangered species in the United States. (AP Photo)

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Msgr. Giovanni Battista Montini is surronded by crowd as he arrives at the monastery belonging to an order of Oblates in Lodi, Northern Italy, April 1, 1955. Montini was elected Pope in Vatican City June 21, 1963 and chose the name of Pope Paul VI. (Ap Photo/Raoul Fornezza)

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South Korean ground crew supplying oxygen and electricity early Wednesday morning to a Japan Air Lines (JAL) plane hijacked by Japanese leftist students and landed Seoul's Kimpo airport Tuesday April 1, 1970. (AP Photo)

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Twelve of these 25 prisoners are being moved from the King County Jail to a state penal institution, April 1, 1969. Gov. Dan Evans signed a bill Monday to put convicted felons awaiting appeal into the state institution instead of county jails. (AP Photo/Barry Sweet)

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60 race drivers sprint across the track of their waiting racers each wanting to be the first onto the track at the start of the 12-hour endurance race in Sebring, Florida on April 1, 1967. (AP Photo)

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U.S. ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge inspects wreckage of a U.S. officers? billet in Saigon on April 1, 1966, after Viet Cong terrorists attacked it before dawn with machine guns, grenades and a truckload of explosives. At least three Americans and three Vietnamese were killed in the raid that injured more than 100 persons. The explosion ripped apart the lower three floors of the 10-story Victoria Hotel near Downtown Saigon. (AP Photo)

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Young demonstrators pile out of a police truck singing and clapping at the jail where they were held following demonstrations in St. Augustine, Florida, April 1, 1964. (AP Photo)

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Troops from the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais are shown on April 1, 1964 marching along the road to Rio de Janeiro. These soldiers were the vanguard of rebel forces that entered the city, forcing President Joao Goulart to flee. Congress named a new president, April 2, 1964. The left-leaning Goulart vowed from Southern Brazil to remain in office. (AP Photo)

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A cozy den is shown in Hoyt Wooten’s bomb shelter on April 1, 1963. To help pass the time for his guests, in case the shelter is ever used, Wooten keeps 25 feature films and a motion picture screen handy. As insurance against unwelcome visitors, he had a special steel door built at the entrance, guarded by steelbar gates supplied by a company that makes similar products for penitentiaries. (AP Photo/BH)

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Christine Keeler, 21, arrives at London?s Old Bailey on April 1, 1963 where a judge declared her bail of $112 forfeited because she failed to show up as a court witness two weeks earlier. Christine, whose vanishing act touched off a national wave of rumor, was under bail to appear on March 17 as a witness in a shooting case against her ex-lover. Instead she took a trip to Spain. Her disappearance led to widespread gossip that she had been encouraged to leave the country by highly placed Britons among her friends. (AP Photo)

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This is the view along Carnot Boulevard in Algiers on April 1, 1962, as French army tanks, trucks, and troops take up positions around the Aletti hotel during blockade of the district. The army sewed up the area while police made identity checks of persons inside it as part of their unending search for members of the secret army organization who are bent on sabotaging the French-Algerian cease-fire agreement. This type of blockade and identity check is done almost daily in district after district as the hunt for the terrorist goes on. (AP Photo)

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Riders read their morning newspapers in New York's subway en route to work, April 1, 1963 after the city's 114-day blackout ended. Striking photoengravers ratified a contract, March 31, ending the virtual blackout. They were the last of the striking unions to accept terms of the contract. (AP Photo/Jacob Harris)

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This is the scene in San Francisco’s Union Square on April 1, 1961, as a crowd gathered to greet a group completing their “Walk for Peace” which started four days ago in Sunnyvale, California, the march was sponsored by the American Friends Service Committee, but a majority of these joining in the walk were not Quakers. The group was addressed by Henry Crane, Methodist pastor from Detroit; Emil Mazey, secretary-treasurer of the United Auto Workers Union; Seymour Melman, associate professor at Columbia University and James Creighton, student at the University of California. (AP Photo/Clarence Hamm)

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U.S. President John F. Kennedy announces his choice of Deputy Attorney General Byron White to be an associate justice of the Supreme Court. Kennedy spoke to newsmen in his White House office in Washington on March 30, 1962. White will succeed Justice Charles Evans Whittaker, who is retiring on doctor’s orders, effective from April 1. (AP Photo/Charles Gorry)

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Wielding sticks, cudgels, and a variety of improvised weapons, Africans march along a suburban road into Durban, South Africa, April 1, 1960 during the violent demonstrations which swept the city. At one stage police fire shots over their heads. Eventually they dispersed. (AP Photo)

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African rioters in Johannesburg townships, South Africa, blocked rail lines running into the area, Monday, April 1, 1960. A mob pushed two mobile compressors onto the tracks and railway labor squads are seen here removing them on Tuesday in morning. (AP Photo)

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This is a view of the street in Juneau, Alaska, looking south on Seward toward the intersection with Franklin St., shown April 1, 1959. Note hazy combination of fog and rain. This is only traffic warning light in the downtown section and there are no downtown stop lights. Old Alaska Juneau mine property on hill. (AP Photo/Bernie Morris)

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President Dwight Eisenhower and Dr. T. Keith Glennan discuss photos received from the satellite Tires I in Washington, April 1, 1960, which was placed in orbit around the earth. Glennan is chief of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. He took the pictures to the White House. (AP Photo)

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A month after an H-bomb was exploded in the Pacific, Helen Watson, lab technician in the Radiological Department of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, measures a trace of radioactivity in snowstorm in the Boston area, April 1, 1954. In background Samuel Levin, radiological safety officer, takes notes. Amount of radiation was called “insignificant” as far as health of human beings in concerned. (AP Photo/Peter J. Carroll)

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Winston Churchill looks chipper in the spring sunlight as he smiles for camera fans after attending a luncheon at the Club of Odd Volumns on Beacon Hill, Boston on April 1, 1949. Behind Churchill are Mr. and Mrs. Henry A. Loughlin, hosts at luncheon given to the British statesman by his American publishers, Houghton Mifflin Company. (AP Photo/Abe Fox)

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Civilians in the German industrial city of Frankfurt scramble over each other in their mad haste to secure a few cigarettes and cigars, on April 1, 1945, as they raid a tobacconist shop in the centre of the city. (AP Photo)

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The first two cargo ships to enter Manila Harbor, Philippines, after it was recaptured from the Japanese, are shown unloading supplies at Pier 7, Manila’s largest pier on April 1, 1945, which was damaged by American and Japanese bombing. (AP Photo/Pool)

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To fit themselves for the part that they may have to play in the war and in defense industries, nearly 400,000 Boys Club of America members throughout the nation are engaged in a victory program. To help the government, many of the clubs are also gaining dogs and carrier pigeons. Richard Barnes of the Madison Square Boys Club teaches his dog Hercules to hold a stick in his mouth after finding a “wounded soldier” in New York, April 1, 1942. The wounded soldier is Leo Aulieu. (AP Photo/Bob Wands)

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Hal Boyle, Associated Press war correspondent, writes a dispatch on North African fighting on April 1, 1943. (AP Photo/Harrison Roberts)

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Luminous paint, used on civilian defense, police and fire equipment, also can be applied to clothing for blackout safety, as seen in Los Angeles, April 1, 1942. The chic costume at the left appears in darkness. Hat, flower, purse, shoes and stick glow. (AP Photo)

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Planes flown by Polish aviators serving with the Royal Air Force, fly over the snow-covered mountains in Scotland, April 1, 1942. (AP Photo)

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Various women’s military units took part in the great defense demonstrations given in Hyde Park, London April 1, 1939, and the girl ambulance drivers drew a big crowd. One of the streamlined Florence Nightingales standing beside her motorized hospital. The heavy corduroy trousers, the rainproof oversize jacket, the helmet and the first aid kit she carries. (AP Photo)

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The new German battleship Admiral Von Tirpitz glides into the water at the launching ceremony at Wilhelmshaven, Germany, on April 1, 1939. (AP Photo)

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Craig Wood, New York City pro, drives in opening round of Augusta National meet on April 1, 1937 in Augusta, Georgia. (AP Photo)

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The new Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, William Whitelaw, right, visits the Parachute Regiment of the Second Battalion, at Girdwood Park, Belfast, Northern Ireland, April 1, 1972. With him, at centre, is General Ford, Commander of Land Forces in Northern Ireland. (AP Photo/Michel Lipchitz)

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A Ringling Brothers Circus elephant walks out of a train car as young children watch in the Bronx railroad yard in New York City, April 1, 1963. The circus opens in Madison Square Garden April 3 for a 40-day engagement. (AP Photo)

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This is the new two-wheeled Ford, called the "Gyron", which is on display at the New York Coliseum, with model Patricia Marand standing alongside, April 1, 1961. (AP Photo/Hans Von Nolde)

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Mist-draped Mt. Fuji, Japan’s “sacred” and picture postcard mountain shown April 1, 1949, claimed another American occupation force victim on March 27 when a B-26 light bomber crashed into the peak. The plane, completing a routine training flight, smashed into the rugged reaches at the 9,500 foot level of the 12,467 foot mountain about sixty miles from Tokyo. “Sacred” Crest, the deceptively smooth top of Mt. Fuji, as seen from the air, are heavily ridged and covered with tough lava. It was over terrain like this that ground searchers of the Third Air Sea Rescue Squadron, based in Japan, toiled to locate wreckage of a B-26 bomber. The crashed plane was the latest of several aircraft, ranging up to heavy transports, which have smashed into the mountain. (AP Photo/Charles P. Gorry)

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American actor Errol Flynn stands next to the 1939 Mercedes-Benz Grand Prix racecar while he is visiting the Mercedes Museum during a recent trip to Stuttgart, Germany, April 1, 1953. (AP Photo)

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Jazz trumpeter Louis Armstrong, right, autographs a group picture made in the Blue Note nightclub during a jazz concert for teenagers in Chicago, Ill., April 1, 1948. Standing at left is Paul Meyer, 16, and at center is Tom Koch, 17, of Milwaukee, Wis., who hitch-hiked to Chicago to attend the afternoon concert. (AP Photo/Edward S. Kitch)

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Reminiscent of scenes of more than a decade ago is this view of activity on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange, July 18, 1939. Trading in the first hour was the heaviest since April 1. Total shares traded July 17 passed the 1,750,000 mark. (AP Photo/John Lent)

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Mexican women do their laundry in the heat beside a stream near Toluca, Mexico City, April 1, 1945. (AP Photo)

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ADVANCE FOR WEEKEND EDITIONS, MARCH 31-APRIL 1 - FILE - In this April 2, 1937 file photo, Byron Nelson of Reading, Pa., putts on the 18th green during the Augusta National Invitational golf tournament at the Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Ga. At he 1937 Masters, Nelson won his first major championship with a stunning rally in the final round. He set the course record with a 66 in the opening round, but a 75 in the third round allowed Ralph Guldahl to take a four-shot lead into the last day. (AP Photo/File)

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A policeman shakes his fist in warning at a female WPA striker in front of WPA headquarters in Oakland, Calif., April 1, 1937. (AP Photo)

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Amateur golfer Bobby Jones is shown putting on the third in the opening round of the Masters golf tournament at the Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Ga., April 1, 1937. (AP Photo)

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This is the U.S. Marine barracks at Managua, Nicaragua, where thousand of victims of the earthquake are being cared for, April 1, 1931. The Marines have been working night and day giving first aid and feeding the destitute. (AP Photo)

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This is the Atlantic City boardwalk in New Jersey, April 1, 1934, Easter Sunday, when a hundred thousand took advantage of the mild weather to enjoy the sea air and show off their Easter Sunday best. (AP Photo)

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Urbain J. Ledoux, better known as "Mr. Zero," leads the Easter Parade of old gents from the East Side, April 1, 1929. (AP Photo)

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Thousands of tax-payers of the salaried class turned out in a great demonstration against the revenue program of the Wirth Govt in Lustgarten, Berlin on April 1, 1922. (AP Photo)

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A group of Mexican rebel officers eat lunch in a boxcar in Mexico in which they are billeted, April 1, 1929. (AP Photo)

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