Today in History - March 19

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Caption on this photo which was published in a German Magazine says American and Filipino Troops are emerging from a tunnel to surrender on March 19, 1943 at Corregidor, Philippines last May. Japanese (right foreground) grins as siege ends on the Sandy Island at mounth of Manila BayÖ (AP Photo)

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The Kremlin Palace, with the Archangel Cathedral in the background, March 19, 1968. (AP Photo)

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AIM guards continue to man roadblocks on roads into Wounded Knee, South Dakota, March 19, 1973, as talks between government and American Indian Movement leaders continue. AIM stated that they wanted to talk to the president or his emissary according to the Sioux Treaty of 1868. (AP Photo/Fred Jewell)

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Johnny A. Kelley of Arlington, Mass., as he crossed the finish line on March 19, 1938 at Medford, Massachusetts, to win the 20-mile marathon for the fifth time. Despite a challenge in the home stretch by Gerald Cote, of St. Hyacinthe, Que., Kelley finished 20 yards out in front with a time of 1 hour, 58 minutes 8.3 seconds, about a minute slower than his record of last year. A warm spring day brought out a straight field of 80 and a horde of spectators. (AP Photo)

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Algerian President Ahmed Ben Bella and Guinean President Sekou Toure wave back to the crowds as their motorcade passes in front of the GPO in Algiers, March 19, 1964. (AP Photo/Eustache Cardenas)

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Jap soldiers on house top celebrating capture of Tienyuehssu in Manchuria, (Manchukuo) China, on March 19, 1932. (AP Photo)

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Jean Jules Verne, grandson of the famous French Romancer, with Sir Hubert Wilkins in the latterís apartment in New York, March 19, 1930 looking over the ground Sir Hubert attempt to cover in his submarine ìNautilusî when he will try to go over the North Pole under the Ice. Verne Will Christen the submarine in the Brooklyn navy yard on March 24. He arrived in New York on March 19 especially for the ceremony. (AP Photo)

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Astronaut David R. Scott, with fellow astronaut Neil Armstrong, left,, standing in front of microphone, after their Gemini 8 flight, at Cape Kennedy, Florida, March 19, 1966. (AP Photo)

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Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, centre, with the Governor of Libya, Marshal Italo Balbo, bearded, and his retinue entering Zavia, Libya, on March 19, 1937, through an arch of welcome, composed of two huge fascist emblembs surmounted by a large M and the word Duce. On either side arabs clap their hands in greeting. (AP Photo)

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The Havana Cathedral, also known as the Cathedral of the Virgin Mary of the Immaculate Conception, in Havana, Cuba, is seen through an archway, March 19, 1940. It is alleged that the remains of Christopher Columbus were once entombed in the church. (AP Photo)

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Three hundred fascist insurgents were killed in this explosion in Madrid under the five-story Casa Blanca building, March 19, 1938. Government loyalists tunneled 600 yards over a six-month period to lay the land mine that caused the explosion. (AP Photo)

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FILE - This photo made March 19, 1964, shows Jerrie Mock getting ready for take-off from Port Columbus, in Columbus, Ohio, on an around-the-world flight. Fifty years ago the 38-year-old mother of three became the first woman to circle the globe alone and set two new aviation records. The Columbus-to-Columbus trip took her to some 20 nations. (AP Photo/Gene Smith)

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This is an aerial view of Hindenburg Dam which connects the German island of Sylt with the northern mainland, showing a train carrying supplies over the span, March 19, 1940. (AP Photo)

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Charles Manson replies "It all depends on your point of view," after a newsman asked him "Are you insane, Charlie?", March 19, 1970 in Los Angeles. The exchange came as Manson left court where he won permission to hire a new attorney, replacing one who had sought to have Manson examined by psychiatrists. (AP Photo/George Brich)

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Gemini 8 Command Pilot Neil Armstrong, left, presses his hands together in prayerful attitude as he and his co-pilot, David Scott, returned to scene of their blast-off, March 19, 1966, Cape Kennedy, Fla. Armstrong told a small welcoming group that they “had a magnificent flight for the first seven hours and we were very pleased with the way it came out.” The flight ended ahead of schedule after their docking with an unmanned Agena space vehicle. (AP Photo)

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U.S. Defense Minister Robert McNamara, his wife Margaret and 15-year-old son Craig returned to the winter resort of Zermatt, Switzerland in morning on March 19, 1966 after an unscheduled overnight stay on the Italian side of the Alps. Zermatt is on the Swiss side of the Matterhorn. Cervinia is on the Italian side of the mountain which is called Cervino in Italy. The excursion by ski across the Alps from Zermatt to Cervinia is a traditional highlight for tourists. The McNamaras and a group of American visitors wanted to enjoy it too. But after skiing their way here yesterday, the weather turned bad and the Americans decided to spend the night here. This morning they all returned to Zermatt using the Panoramic cable-way up to Plateau Rosa. (AP Photo)

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Upward of 500 marchers crowd on steps and sidewalk in front of City Hall and sing, after they staged an unannounced march to the municipal building, March 19, 1965, Selma, Ala. The group, protesting Alabama voting laws, is scheduled to start a march, from Selma to Montgomery, taking five days to make the 50-mile walk. (AP Photo)

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Marchers walk along a road through the countryside during the civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, March 19, 1965. (AP Photo)

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State labor union members spill over into the street in front of the State Capitol at Harrisburg, Penn., March 19, 1964 during a labor protest rally against Gov. Scranton’s proposed unemployment compensation program. (AP Photo)

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Two girls, dressed for the Easter perform a dance traditionally done by the women of their town in Megara, Greece, March 19, 1963. (AP Photo)

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People wait to vote at Heiyantuduwa in Kelaniya electorate about 12 miles East of Colombo during Sri Lanka general election on March 19, 1960 in South of Colombo. You have to look sharp to tell the men from the women, since both wear skirts. (AP Photo)

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Lt. C.F. Hill gesturing with his thumb, orders demonstrators to leave the main public library in Memphis, March 19, 1960. When they refused, 41 were arrested, including reporters and photographers for two black Memphis newspapers. All were charged with disorderly conduct, loitering, and threatened breach of peace. Blacks are traditionally barred from the main library and four of the five branch libraries. Identification of other persons shown was not available. (AP Photo)

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Two Japanese fishermen, among 23 accidentally showered with radioactive ash from the March 1 thermonuclear explosion at Bikini, show burns they suffered, March 19, 1954. Dr. Kentaro Shimizu of Tokyo University points to burns on one man’s ear during a Tokyo news conference. (AP Photo)

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This is part of the crowd, many of them defendants, who jammed the Montgomery County courthouse awaiting the start of the trial of 93 blacks in the racial bus boycott, March 19, 1956. Among those to appear for the trial are 25 preachers. All are charged with violation of the state anti-boycott law. (AP Photo/Gene Herrick)

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Henry Ford’s 45-room Georgian mansion on his 1,369-acre estate “Fairlane” at Dearborn, Michigan on March 19, 1951. (AP Photo)

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This amiable presentation preceded session of the Senate Investigating committee March 19, 1953 as Chairman Joseph McCarthy (R-Wis), right, gave this fancy chest of cigars to Senator Karl Mundt (R-S.D.), a committee member. Mundt took his place at the hearing, smoking a pungent pipe. McCarthy, no smoker, finally stopped proceedings and ordered Mundt to get rid of the briar. Mundt agreed but added that McCarthy must furnish cigars as a substitute. (AP Photo)

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A V-bomb fell on Speaker's Corner, in Hyde Park, at Marble Arch. Two people died of injuries, but had the missile fallen a few hours later when the crowds had gathered on Sunday in afternoon to listen to the famous soap-box orators who hold forth ay this spot, the story would have been very different. The scene in the Marble Arch corner of Hype Park in London on, March 19, 1945, after the missile fell, throwing up a lot of earth and stripping the trees of their branches. (AP Photo)

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Before the race starts bet tickets are sold at regulation seller windows in Chicago on March 19, 1945. Sgt. John Mack buys a ticket on a “favorite” from Anita Raab (left, in window) and Libby Tittle, as Cpl. Bernard C. Kirchoff, Detroit, Mich.; Russell L. Wilcox, Almeda, Calif.; and Robert L. Conoboy, New York, wait in line. (AP Photo/Edward Kitch)

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Coblenz was cleared of the enemy on March 19 by General Patton’s forces. Like other German towns, the city has suffered much damage. American infantrymen firing down one of the streets in Coblenz during the street battles for the city, on March 19, 1945. (AP Photo)

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Exterior views of the Federal Loan Bldg, Vermont Ave NW Washington, D.C. headquarters of the RFC on March 19, 1942. (AP Photo/Charles Gorry)

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This is a new scene to the campus of Texas A&M at College Station, Pa., March 19, 1942 – a group of civilians from many states being instructed in gas mask procedure by War Department representatives. (AP Photo)

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Four thousand volunteers who have served a minimum of three months in the Auxiliary Aircraft Warning Service of the U.S. Army received citations at City Hall in New York, March 19, 1943. View of the exercises which featured speeches by Mayor La Guardia, Army officers and prominent citizens. (AP Photo/Carl Nesensohn)

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Field Marshall Hermann Goering greeting the Fuhrer with his raised Marshal Baton during the welcome ceremony at Goerlitzer station in Berlin on March 19, 1939. Behind Adolf Hitler’s raised arm are F. R. T. L. Minister of Propaganda and Public Enlightenment, Dr. Joseph Goebbels, leader of the German labor front, Dr. Robert Ley, Minister of Education, Bernhard Rust, and Germany Foreign Minister Joachim Von Rebeentrop. (AP Photo)

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The Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor is shown, March 19, 1939. (AP Photo)

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The 8-hours working day has finally come to the chain gangs of the Bibb County jail, and convicts black and white now toil under Georgia sun in accordance with modern labour condition. Picks go up and down for an eight hour day at Bibb County jail, Georgia, on March 19, 1937. (AP Photo)

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Great White Throne at Zion National Park in Utah is seen, March 19, 1935. (AP Photo)

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Mrs. Jacqueline Kennedy's hair flew in the wind as she took an elephant ride during her visit to Jaipur, India on March 19, 1962. Riding in the golden seat beside her was her sister, Princess Lee Radziwill. The gaily decorated animal, a female named Bibia, was fitted with false tusks carved from wood. (AP Photo)

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Military exercises near Berlin, March 19, 1935, under the eyes of defense Minister Werner Von Blomberg. These exercises were in line with recent announcement of the German government that the Versailles treaty shall de disregarded to build up adequate defense strength. (AP Photo)

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The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., center, the first defendant called to trial in the racial bus boycott, held a press conference on March 19, 1956 on the steps of the Montgomery County courthouse where he and 92 others are on trial. They are charged with the violation of the anti-boycott law. King's wife, Coretta is by his side. (AP Photo/Gene Herrick)

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Mrs. Rosa Parks and E.D. Nixon, left, former president of the Alabama NAACP, arrive at court in Montgomery March 19, 1956 for the trial in the racial bus boycott. Mrs. Parks was fined $14 on Dec. 5 for failing to move to the segregated section of a city bus. The boycott started on the day she was fined. There were 91 other defendants. (AP Photo/Gene Herrick)

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A model compares the size of the new German radio called the "Mini Boy," to the 35-millimeter camera seen with it in Nurenburg, Germany, March 19, 1954. The radio, which has four tiny tubes and two small batteries, operates on the medium wave band. It weighs one pound six ounces. It is manufactured by the Grundig Radio firm. (AP Photo/Albert Riethausen)

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John Wayne shows the gold statuettes he accepted for Gary Cooper and John Ford to two former Academy Award winners, Olivia De Havilland and Janet Gaynor after the ceremony in Hollywood March 19, 1953. Cooper won his Oscar as best actor, in "Hi Noon." and Ford as best director. Neither was in town for the presentations. Miss Gaynor was handed the first Oscar ever presented to an actress 25 years ago. (AP Photo)

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Crewmen aboard the burning USS Franklin are seen standing in the second deck while awaiting rescue, after the carrier had been hit and set afire by a Japanese dive bomber, on March 19, 1945, off the coast of Honshu, Japan. (AP Photo)

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A French digger charged its way across the floor of Owens Valley in California on March 19, 1942 to speed laying of a water supply line for the boom town for evacuated Japanese being erected at Manzanar under the direction of Lt. Gen. John L. Dewitt of the western defense command. Though the big community for some 10,000 Japanese from Southern California cities is located near an aqueduct supplying Los Angeles, water for the reception center will be piped from a stream in the Nevada, which rise snow-capped in the background. (AP Photo/John T.Burns)

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Interned Japanese, carrying belongings in paper bags, leave Seattle by train for Fort Missoula, Montana, March 19, 1942, while relatives waved through station cars, right. A group of 150 internees had been held in the Seattle immigration station. (AP Photo)

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The German official Army Communique reports that the German troops are steadily progressing in their march into Bulgaria, March 19, 1941. The troops are marching through the still snow bound mountainous regions of the Balkan to their planned destination. (AP Photo)

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On their advance into Bulgaria the German troops are being happily and enthusiastically received. A young girl presenting bouquets of field flowers to marching German soldiers in Bulgaria, March 19, 1941. (AP Photo)

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German infantry march during a big parade which took place on the Wenzels Square in Praha, Czech Republic, March 19, 1939 on the day of Germany's armed force entered the country. (AP Photo)

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First lady Eleanor Roosevelt accompanied President Franklin D. Roosevelt to the Union Station in Washington, D.C., March 19, 1941 when he left by special train for a fishing trip in southern waters. He is expected to board the presidential yacht Potomac in Florida for a cruise. (AP Photo)

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The 8-hours working day has finally come to the chain gangs of the Bibb County jail, and convicts black and white now toil under Georgia sun in accordance with modern labour condition. Convicts at work in a field from the Bibb County jail, Georgia, on March 19, 1937. (AP Photo)

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Actor Charlie Chaplin surrounded by fans in Vienna, Austria during his tour of Europe on March 19, 1931. (AP Photo)

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Nobuhito, Prince Takamatsu of Japan and his wife Princess Takamatsu, known informally as Princess Kikuko arriving at Victoria Station, London on March 19, 1931 for a visit to Britain. (AP Photo)

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New York's Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, Manhattan, March 19, 1928. (AP Photo)

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Britain's Captain Bill Lancaster, with Australian Jessie Maude 'Chubbie' Miller, upon their arrival in Darwin, Australia, March 19, 1928, after they had flown from England to Australia. Miller was the first woman to fly to Australia, and the flight took 159 days. (AP Photo)

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Street scene showing the fountain, Market Square and Town Hall in Naumburg, Germany, March 19, 1928. (AP Photo)

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