The truck, headed east just past the Grovetown exit, blew a tire, swerved from the highway, crashed through a guardrail and rolled into a deep ditch in the median shortly after 2 p.m., authorities said.
It took about 30 minutes for Martinez-Columbia Fire Rescue workers to pull the man from the overturned vehicle and get him to a helicopter ambulance.
He was identified as May Hughes Wimberly, 48, of Waynesboro, Ga.
He was in critical condition Monday night, a hospital spokeswoman said.
While traffic backed up as emergency crews were working, a man in a stopped vehicle apparently had a heart attack and required emergency treatment.
He had been on his way to a hospital for medical care, and his symptoms worsened while stuck in traffic.