In a 3-2 decision, the justices said the act confers custodial preference to the child’s father, a member of the Cherokee tribe.
“Adoptive Couple are ideal parents who have exhibited the ability to provide a loving family environment for Baby Girl,” said the opinion written by Chief Justice Jean Toal.
Toal said it is with “a heavy heart that we confirm the family court order” but that preference must be given to the Native American parent under federal law. Because it is an adoption case, the order did not mention specific names for privacy reasons.
The court used as its guide the federal Indian Child Welfare Act, passed in 1978 because of the high number of Indian children that at the time were being removed from their homes by public and private agencies. The act gives the child’s tribe and family the right to have a say in decisions affecting the child.
IN THIS CASE, now-2-year-old Veronica was adopted by Matt and Melanie Capobianco, who live on James Island just outside Charleston. They attended the girl’s birth and cared for her thereafter.
The girl’s father, Dusten Brown, a member of the Cherokee Nation, later went to court seeking custody. A South Carolina court awarded Brown custody of the child, and he arrived in Charleston on New Year’s Eve with his parents to take the girl back to Oklahoma.
The adoptive parents appealed, and the Supreme Court heard the case during a closed hearing in April. During the girl’s time with the Capobiancos, the court wrote, the family has likely formed a significant bond. But that isn’t enough to keep her from her biological father, given the constraints of the federal law.
“While we are conscious that any separation will cause some degree of pain, we can only conclude from the evidence presented at trial that Father desires to be a parent to Baby Girl, and that he and his family have created a safe, loving and appropriate home for her,” the court wrote.
JUSTICE JOHN KITTREDGE, in his dissent, said he would have approved the adoption by the South Carolina couple.
“Today the Court decides the fate of a child without regard to her best interests and welfare,” he wrote. “Father purposely abandoned this child and no amount of revisionist history can change that truth.”
In a statement, the attorney general for the Cherokee Nation heralded the decision as a victory for Native American families. The Capobiancos said they were saddened by the ruling.
“We love our little girl deeply and only want what is best for her,” they said. “This decision will prevent us from having any involvement in her life. Our hearts are completely broken.”
Family spokeswoman Jessica Munday said the couple could appeal the case to the U.S. Supreme Court but hadn’t decided what to do next.
“The law is meant to preserve and protect children. It was not meant to devastate individuals, Native American or non-Native American,” she said. “And the reality is that’s what’s happening.”