The 32-year-old Londoner powered his way to victory on the 44-kilometer course south of London to win his seventh Olympic medal, taking over the British record he shared with former rowing great Steve Redgrave.
Wiggins covered the course in 50 minutes, 39.54 seconds, beating silver medalist Tony Martin of Germany by 42 seconds. Tour runner-up Christopher Froome of Britain claimed the bronze medal.
Wiggins became the first British rider to win the Tour de France last month. It was his fourth Olympic gold medal after winning three titles in Athens and Beijing — in individual and team pursuit.