Sheriff's spokesman David Ehsanipoor said deputies arrested Heather April Malphus, 32, of Springfield, on Tuesday at her residence.
According to sheriff's reports, deputies responded to a residence in the Pineora community about 3 p.m. May 29 on a report of a fire.
Upon arrival, neighbors reported a female attempted to set the residence on fire. Bystanders were able to extinguish the flame outside of the residence preventing the home from catching on fire.
Ehsanipoor said the incident happened following an argument between Malphus and her boyfriend earlier that day.
Malphus was arrested Tuesday and taken to the Effingham County jail, where she was charged with aggravated assault, arson, criminal damage to property and reckless conduct.
She posted a $53,000 bond Wednesday and was released.