Market rally might hit bump

Slow earnings growth would affect stocks

For the stock market, it was a triumphant first quarter. But for earnings growth, the past three months were just ho-hum.


Analysts are expecting earnings for companies in the Standard & Poor’s 500 index to decline 0.1 percent compared to a year ago, according to FactSet. It’s a tiny number but a significant turning point. Earnings growth was on a winning streak for the previous nine quarters. Year-over-year earnings growth has been at least 10 percent for all but the most recent period, when it was 6 percent.

The reasons for the expected slowdown range from global (a weak Europe hurts everybody) to mathematical (it’s hard to top double-digit quarters). Whatever the cause, the stagnation in earnings growth is a stark reminder that the economy’s problems are far from solved. Just three months ago, analysts were predicting 3 percent earnings growth for the first quarter.

Earnings season gets under way Tuesday when the aluminum producer Alcoa becomes the first major U.S. company to release its first-quarter results.

Should this batch of earnings contain a lot of bad surprises, it could upend a stock market rally that pushed the S&P 500 index up 12 percent in the first three months of the year. Here’s what you need to know:

• Are earnings that bad?

It depends on how you look at it. Keep in mind that this deceleration follows an extended period of big gains. Earnings surged 19 percent in the first quarter of 2011, and that was on top of 53 percent growth the year before as companies bounced back from a dismal first quarter of 2009. Aggregate earnings of companies in the S&P 500 were $96 per share last year, a record, according to FactSet earnings analyst John Butters. Investors know companies can’t sustain warp speed indefinitely.

• Does the market care about earnings?

Sure, to an extent. More often than not, a company’s stock moves in the same direction as its earnings.

Investors tend to trade on what they expect to happen in the coming months. By the time a company actually announces its quarterly results, chances are they’ve already been baked into the stock price and won’t have much of an immediate effect unless there’s a big surprise.

• What’s the big picture?

Despite all the hubbub about The End of Earnings Growth, analysts are expecting only a short-term decline. Earnings growth is expected to return to 7 percent in the second quarter and 5 percent in the third quarter, according to FactSet. Bigger jumps of 16 percent, 14 percent and 13 percent are predicted for the three quarters after that.